Kapitelauswahl

User's Manual

Dies ist das Flight Manual für die EC 135 V5. Es ist bewusst in englischer Sprache gehalten, damit es von allen Usern weltweit genutzt werden kann. 

This is EC 135 V5 Flight Manual. It is intentionally written in English.

System requirements 

Minimum X-Plane version: 11.50

OS: Any OS supporting X-Plane, i.e. Windows, MacOS or Linux

Best way to fly a helicopter in the simulator are special helo controls like Pro Flight Trainer or the controls by microhelis.de. You can also use a good joystick with high resolution, best with pedals for the yaw axis. For a realistic flight experience we also recommend to use a virtual reality headset. 

This add-on does not work together with XPUIPC plugin. To fly with EC 135 V5 you must deinstall oder disable XPUIPC.


Installation

EC 135 V5 will be installed almost as any other aircraft in X-Plane 11: Unzip the archive to any sub folder of the aircraft folder in your X-Plane installation. 

Setting up your system for EC 135 V5

The following settings can only be made if the EC 135 V5 is already loaded.

Assure your controls (joystick, pedals etc.) are calibrated. Assign the axes of your controls using the example of a Saitek X52 in the following figures. 

Example of assignment of pitch, roll and yaw axes in X-Plane's joystick settings
Power control has to be assigned to Collective (not Trottle!). Using a normal joystick it could be necessary to klick Reverse Axis

Be sure to have NOT mapped any other axes. By no means a thotte axis must be assigned.

EC 135 V5 plugin will manipulate the general sensitivity and artificial stability settings of your joystick. When going back to another aircraft your own preferences will be restored. Please do NOT change the settings made by the plugin in order to obtain a realistic controls response!

Moreover it is very useful to have important functions on the buttons of the joystick. Some of them are X-Plane's own commands, others are custom commands generated by the EC 135 V5 plugin. Assignment takes place also in X-Plane's joystick settings page. Absolutely minimum required to control the EC 135 V5 are the following commands: 

  • BEEP TRIM functions realized by X-Plane's trim commands
  • FORCE TRIM RELEASE button
  • CDS/AUDIO RESET Button
POV assignment with BEEP TRIM commands
Example of other important command assignments

Refer to Controls explanation to learn more about the typical cyclic stick buttons in order to improve your flight feeling. 


Controls

Cyclic Stick

The Cyclic Stick controls the movement of the helicopter around the pitch and roll axes. Normally you use a joystick for this purpose. The following figure shows a typical real EC 135 Stick with its buttons. Red marked functions are absolutely needed, green are useful when you fly with autopilot. To learn more about assignment of custom functions to a joystick button refer to Setting up Your System. 

  1. ICS RADIO (ATC and intercom)
  2. FTR Force Trim Release button
  3. BEEP TRIM (4way hat switch) 
  4. SAS/AP CUT (turns of SAS and autopilot)
  5. P/R // YAW RST (resets and reactives SAS)
  6. CDS/AUDIO RESET (acknowleges cautions and warning sounds)
  7. APMD DCPL (aborts autopilot's upper modes)
Typical Cyclic Stick

To reduce pilot's workload this rotorcraft is equipped with a comfortable Trim system. It consists of a 4 way BEEP TRIM switch and a FORCE TRIM RELEASE FTR ) button. In real live this is implemented with springs and actors that neutralize pilot's effort in the center of the trimmed position. Is is not possible with normal joysticks to reposition the center position as desired. Therefore we go another way to realize the trim functions. FORCE TRIM RELEASE in EC 135 V5 works as follows:

  1. You are flying as needed to hold the desired flight attitude. Your stick is not centered. 
  2. Press FTR and hold it pressed. Now your stick is decoupled from the helicopter. 
  3. While holding FTR pressed move your stick in its centered position where you have no more effort. 
  4. Release FTR. Trimming is new calculated by the plugin. Your stick gets back the control on your helicopter, but in a more comfortable, forceless position. 
Using Force Trim Release function

For fine tuning the trim position use the BEEP TRIM 4 way switch. 

With Rotor RPM below 80 % pressing FTR button will reset all trimming to zero. So you can get a neutral trim position while standing in IDLE state on the ground. 

Trim functions have other meanings when flying with autopilot. For details refer to AFCS's description. 

Cyclic stick can be locked mechanically or unlocked by clicking on the respective clamp. With locked stick inputs to pitch and roll by joystick are inhibited. 

Clamp to lock stick

Collective Pitch

The Collective Pitch controls the power of the aircraft. When using the throttle lever or a normal joystick it will mostly be necessary to reverse the axis in X-Plane's joystick settings. Standard throttle levers give more power when pressed forward. Helicopter's collective give more power when pulled up. 

On the collective pitch pilot can switch on and off

  1. Search and Landing Light (if installed)
  2. Standard Landing Light
Control Panel at Collective Lever

Yaw Control

To compensate the turning moment of the helicopter you need a yaw control. In the simplest case this can be the twist grip of a joystick. Because it is necessary to control yaw while the complete flight and the helicopter will react very strong to these inputs, we recommend to use rudder pedals for flying helicopters. Best are pedals without as center springs. 

Stability Augmentation System (SAS)

YAW SAS and P&R SAS provide artificial stability in yaw axis respectively pitch and roll axis. Both systems are activated automatically by power-up. Pressing SAS/AP CUT deactivates the SAS. Y RST reactivates YAW SAS, P&R RST reactivates P&R SAS. 


Cockpit Arrangement

Depending on configuration cockpit arrangement can be different. The following figures show typical constellations for analog and digital cockpits with the important parts. 

  1. CPDS
  2. Main Switch Panel
  3. Standby Instruments
  4. Warning Panel
  5. Magnetic Compass
  6. Analog Avionics
  7. FCDS
Typical Instrument Panel with analogous avionics
Typical Instrument Panel with FCDS

Warning Panel as a Part of Instrument Panel represents all warnings. 

  1. FIRE warning light and Emergency Engine OFF button
  2. ACTIVE warning light shows the status of Emergency OFF
  3. LOW FUEL warning for supply tanks I and II
  4. ROTOR RPM warning light
  5. BAT TEMP battery temperature warning light
  6. BAT DISC battery discharge warning light
  7. XMSN OIL P transmission oil pressure warning light
  8. AP A.TRIM autopilot waring light
  9. CARGO SMOKE waring light

On the right hand of the Warning Panel is a yellow MASTER CAUTION light. Further details about meaning of Warning Lights can be found at section Emergency Procedures.

Warning Panel

All cockpits also have an Overhead Panel with circuit breakers and switches for different Systems.

  1. Circuit Breakers (inoperable in freeware versions)
  2. TEST switches
  3. AVIONICS switches
  4. Heating and Wipers
  5. Fuel Pumps
  6. Lighting switches
  7. Manual Engine Control (inoperable in freeware versions)
Overhead Panel

ATC and Navigation Systems

The aircraft ist equipped with X-Plane's standard Garmin 530 GPS devices (manual at x-plane.com). Optionally some liveries are prepared for Reality XP GTN 750 devices (third party software). 

Dashboard

A Dashboard gives user an easy control to useful settings for cockpit and cabin. To show or hide dashboard click into the area of warning lights. At dashboard user can

  • seat or unseat crew members by clicking on their place
  • change the appearance of instrument panel (small or wide, analog or digital, single or dual controls)
  • change 530 GNS by GTN 750
  • show or hide AviTab display
  • remove backseats
  • remove left and/or right front door (i.e. for hoist operations)
  • place or remove the REMOVE BEFORE FLIGHT Flags (by clicking on the respective symbol)

All options are always available in Configurations Menu. 

Dashboard and its zone to show or hide

Engines and related Systems

FADEC

The engines of the rotorcraft are controlled by FACEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control). This computer controls rotor RPM as function of density altitude as shown in the following figure. Tumbler on Engine Control Panel provide access to FACECs (2) and Engines (1). Refer to the checklist for further informations.  

Rotor RPM a a function of density altitude
Engine Control Panel

HI-NR System

To improve performance in CAT-A situations or with a gross mass above 2825 kg, the rotorcraft is equipped with a system that automatically increases rotor RPM by up to 3 %. The system is armed by pressing HI-NR Mode button. When armed, HI-NR Mode will be activated while speed is less then 55 KIAS. A green caution light above the Master Caution Light indicates this. 

Fuel System

Information will be coming soon...


CPDS (Central Panel Display System)

The CPDS collects all informations about the aircraft and the engines. After power up CPDS starts with a self test. 

Caution and Advisory Display (CAD)

CAD shows in its upper half amber cautions and green advisories. The information is organized in 3 rows. Left row represents system I, right row System II. Middle row shows information about non redundant systems. Cautions are listet in the order of its appearance. Advisories find place below the cautions. If there are more cautions then display lines you can scroll to the next page by pressing SCROLL button. A white line in de middle row indicates that there are more pages. 

When a new caution comes on, all present cautions are hidden. Blinking amber bars indicate the new cautions. Press CAD's SELECT button or CDS/AUDIO RESET on your cyclic to acknowledge the cautions. 

CAD Caution and Advisory Display

The lower part of CAD provides information about fuel tanks. If a Fuel Management System is installed you get also information about fuel flow and estimated remaining flight time. 

Buttons BRT+ and BRT- can be used to control the brightness of the display. 

VEMD (Vehicle and Engine Monitoring Display)

VEMD Vehicle and Engine Monitoring Display

The upper display called FLI (First Limit Indicator) shows important parameters of the engines, i.e. torque (TRQ), turbine outlet temperature (TOT) an N1 speed. If any parameter reaches a temporary allowed range, this is marked by a yellow bar. Exceeds the parameter a limit it is marked by a red blinking bar. 

The needles represent the parameter marked with white boxes. During engine start-up this is TOT, during flight TRQ or the parameter most next to the limit. 

When operating in a yellow range a red word LIMIT comes on. After time limit or parameter limit is reached, the word LIMIT is framed by a red box. Flying under OEI conditions will also activate a counter showing the remaining time in the temporary range. 

Below the needles is an indicator for the mast moment of rotor mast. 

In the upper left and right edge of FLI are displayed some special cautions. 

FLI First Limit Indicator
Symbols used in FLI

The lower display shows in the ELEC/VEH page electrical and pressure parameters and the outside temperature. Press + or - buttons to change the displayed electrical parameters between DC Voltage (DC [V]), battery current (BAT [A]) and generator current (GEN [A]). 

ELEC/VEH Page

Press SCROLL to toggle between ELEC/VEH page and SYSTEM STATUS page, which shows FADEC's parameters. 

After engine shutdown the lower display automatically changes to FLIGHT REPORT page. Here you get information about your flight. Press RESET to go back to ELEC/VEH page. 

CONFIGURATION page shows the equipment of the aircraft. This can only be displayed on the ground while both VEMD displays are switched off. In this situation press OFF1OFF2SELECT within 2 seconds.  

Buttons BRT+ and BRT- can be used to control the brightness of the display. 

Never switch off CAD or VEMD inflight!


FCDS (Flight Control Display System)

The flight Control Display System consists of a PFD (Primary Flight Display), a ND (Navigation Display) and an ICP (Instrument Control Panel). The following figures show typical displays of PFD and ND in HSI Mode and Sector Mode

PFD Primary Flight Display in Composite Mode
ND Navigation Display in HSI Mode
ND Navigation Display in Sector Mode

Displays are controlled by the Instrument Control Panel (ICP). There are separate ICPs for piltot's and co-pilot's side. 

ICP Instrument Control Panel
  • Zoom out (Sector Mode, this is synchronized for pilot and co-pilot)
  • Zoom in (Sector Mode, this is synchronized for pilot and co-pilot)
  • PFD Toggles PFD's Composite Mode
  • ND Toggles ND's HSI Mode and Sector Mode
  • NAV SOURCE Changes navigation source: VOR1/ILS1, VOR2/ILS2, NMS (GPS)
  • Needle to ADF1 or VOR1
  • Needle to ADF2 or VOR2
  • DH Rheostat Decision Height
  • CRS Course Bug
  • BARO Rheostat Barometric Pressure (Altimeter)
  • POS Pitch Reference Artificial Horizon

Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)

When AFCS is installed and not activated, AUTOPILOT caution comes on while collective lever is raised. This is only for information of pilot. Acknowledge the caution by pressing SELECT on CAD or CDS/AUDIO RESET on cyclic stick and ignore it.

The Automatic Flight Control System is EC 135's autopilot. The system is very complex and works in many different modes. The principle is similar to that of other airplanes' autopilots, but there are also many differences.

Control Panel for AFCS is installed in the slant console or the center console, depending on other equipment.  

AFCS Control Panel

Engagement and Disengagement of AFCS

AFCS is engaged by pressing AP button. Amber indication light OFF will disappear. System is now active in A. TRIM mode. 

Pressing AP button again will disengage AFCS. Pressing SAS/AP CUT button at cyclic stick will also disengage AFCS and additionally all SAS functions. When AFCS is disengaged amber OFF in AP button is illuminated.

After disengaging AFCS warning light AP A.TRIM, caution AUTOPILOT and warning gong come on for 10 seconds.

Overriding AFCS

Pilot can override AFCS temporarily by pressing FTR button.

  1. To change the reference attitude press FTR. 
  2. AP is now overrides. Fly hands-on to the desired attitude while holding FTR pressed. 
  3. When desired attitude is reached, release FTR button. 
  4. Bring stick quickly back in it's neutral position. Autopilot will hold the new attitude (A. TRIM Mode) or reference airspeed or altitude (depending on engaged upper mode). 
Use of Force Trim Release Button with AFCS

Also BEEP TRIM overrides AFCS functions. Details depend on active mode and are described there. 

At departure or approach flight autopilot may work against pilot's intensions. We strongly recommend to disengage AFCS during this time or fly hands-on by holding FTR button pressed. 

A. TRIM Mode

This is standard mode after activation of AFCS. While A. TRIM mode is active, amber indication OFF in A. TRIM button is off. AFCS's status lines in PFD are empty. In this mode autopilot will hold the helicopters flight attitude as it was when activating the system. 

Disengage: Press A. TRIM button. OFF is illuminated. System goes to AFCS SAS mode. 

Override: BEEP TRIM buttons change the reference for desired flight attitude in pitch and roll. 

Upper Modes

In addition to A. TRIM Mode AFCS provides 10 Upper Modes. When an upper mode is armed an amber indication light A is illuminated in the respective button, when engaged a green C (coupled) or ON comes on. Activated HDG or ALT.A Mode is indicated by a green next to the caption. At PFD active modes are indicated by a green text, armed modes by a cyan text. 

Upper modes can only be activated if AFCS is on. 

When an upper mode is disengaged caution DECOUPLE will come on for 10 s at CAD. Pressing A. TRIM button will disengage all upper modes an switch to AFCS SAS mode. 

ALT Mode

Holds altitude (vertical mode). 

Engage: Press ALT button. 

Disengage: Press ALT button oder select other vertical mode. 

Override: BEEP TRIM forwards and afterwards change reference altitude.

IAS Mode

Holds indicated airspeed (vertical mode). 

Engage: Press IAS button. 

Disengage: Press IAS button oder select other vertical mode. 

Override: BEEP TRIM forwards and afterwards change reference speed. 

VS Mode

Holds vertical speed (vertical mode). 

Engage: Press VS button. 

Disengage: Press VS button oder select other vertical mode. 

Override: BEEP TRIM forwards and afterwards change vertical speed. 

GS Mode

Follows glide path of an ILS (vertical mode). 

Engage: Press GS button. 

Disengage: Press GS button oder select other vertical mode. 

HDG Mode

Holds heading (lateral mode).  

Engage: Set desired heading with HDG rheostat. Press HDG button. 

Disengage: Press HDG button or select other lateral mode. 

Override: BEEP TRIM left or right and HDG rheostat change reference heading. 

APP Mode

Follows VOR or locator of an ILS (lateral mode). 

Engage: Tune in frequency of VOR or ILS. Press APP button. APP mode will be armed and automatically engaged when the nav source is captured. As long as APP mode is armed another active lateral mode stays engaged. 

Disengage: Press APP button or select other lateral mode. 

NAV Mode

Follows a course given by GPS/NMS, VOR or HSI (lateral mode).

Engage: Tune in frequency of VOR or programm GPS/NMS. Press NAV button. NAV mode will be armed and automatically engaged when the nav source is captured or GPS/NMS is selected. As long as NAV mode is armed another active lateral mode stays engaged.

Disengage: Press NAV button or select other lateral mode. 

ALT.A Mode

Holds a predefined altitude (vertical mode). 

Engage: Select target altitude by ALT.A rheostat. Press ALT.A button.

Disengage: Press ALT.A button or select other vertical mode. 

Override: BEEP TRIM forwards and afterwards change vertical speed.  

GA Mode

Go Around Mode is used to abort approach. It will hold a indicated airspeed of 75 kt.  

Engage: Press GA button at collective lever (assign the joystick command sim/autopilot/take_off_go_around to a button). 

Override: BEEP TRIM forwards and afterwards change reference speed. 

BC Mode

Back Course Mode is not supported. 


Sling Operations

This aircraft can be equipped with a cargo hook and a winch. Choose a livery with the respective equipment or change the configuration of your livery by using the configurator. 

Basics of sling operations

Use the Sling Operations menu at a starting point.

Sling Operations menu

In the upper area of the menu you can select the attachment point for a load:

  • Cargo Hook (Hook 1) 1st hook of the Cargo Hook supplement.
  • Cargo Hook (Hook 2) 2nd hook of the Cargo Hook supplement.
  • Hoist Rescue winch.

The menu points are only available if the respective supplement is installed. They are also disabled if any load is attached to avoid accidentally change while flying. 

In the lower area of the menu you can operate the sling load settings:

  • Add Sling Object is an alias to X-Planes Weight And Balance menu where you can choose an object to attach. 
  • Drop / Pick-up Load is the menu representation of the custom command Toggle Sling Load which allows you to drop or pick up the attached object keeping the cable. This only works with objects designed for this purpose.

To initiate sling operations we recommend the following procedure: 

  1. Choose the intended attachment point (one of the cargo hooks or the winch).
  2. Choose your object for example by clicking to Add Sling Object
  3. If necessary, click on Drop / Pick-up Load or pressing Toggle Sling Load to hide the object an actually attach it during the flight.

Pay attention to the maximum gross mass for all sling operations! If in doubt, take less fuel with you or reduce the weight of the helicopter otherwise. 

For all sling operation it is necessary to assign X-Plane's command Jettison Payload to a button on your stick or keyboard. This opens the hook and releases the load as standard or an emergency operation. 

Cargo Hook

Cargo Hook is ready to use when it is installed. This supplement has two hooks to choose from. The maximum load is 1300 kg. When installed and not loaded with a weight, an advisory HOOK UNLD appears in middle column of CAD. VNE with attached load is limited to 100 KIAS.

Cargo Hook

To change the length of the cable, click on the Cable Length menu item. You can switch between three preset lengths: 10 m, 20 m or 30 m. This is only possible when hook is not loaded. 

Press Toggle Sling Load to drop the object keeping the cable or re-attach it to the cable. Press Jettison Payload to drop the load including the cable.

Hoist (Rescue Winch)

To operate the hoist set WINCH CABLE CUT switch at overhead panel to CC-ARM ON. While hoist system is activated CA CUT ARM caution is indicated on CAD. The rest of the operation takes place via a handheld device or via special custom commands. We recommend assigning these commands to joystick buttons or the keyboard.

Control Pendant Commands Remarks
Boom In/Out switch Hoist boom turn in
Hoist boom turn out
 
Reel In/Out thumb wheel Hoist Cable Down
Hoist Cable Up
 
CUT Cable push button Jettison Payload  
Cable meter display   Shows the length of the cable.
Caution light   Inidcates cable length within 3 m before reaching fully reeled in or reeled out position. Hoist speed is reduced automatically. 
Overheat light   Illuminates when temperature limits are exceeded. Is illuminated for 2 seconds to check operation when hoist is initially powered-up. 

Maximum hoist load is limited to 230 kg. During hoist operation or with fully or partly extended boom and/or opened sliding door VNE is limited to 60 KIAS. Cable length is 50 m. 

Sling Operations menu provides 3 additional options to be used with the winch:

  • Board/unboard Pass 1  
  • Board/unboard Pass 2 
  • No Boarding 

When winch cable is in fully reeled in position, pressing Toggle Sling Load will attach the passenger 1 or 2 to the winch and get him off board. His weight is removed from the helicopter and transferred to the winch. Conversely, he gets back into the helicopter if he is already hanging on the winch cabe pressing Toggle Sling Load. The third menu item No Boarding has no effect on passengers and weight. It allows the user to control all parameters himself.

Before and after pressing Toggle Sling Load with option Board/unboard Pass 2 selected. The passenger is attached to the winch.

Pimp your own objects

The mechanism behind the Toggle Sling Load command only works if the objects supplied with this add-on are used as loads. Developers can, however, simply extend their objects in order to use them with this mechanism as well. For this purpose, the EC 135 provides a dataref rotorsim/ec135/hook_unloaded. It indicates whether the object should be drawn or not. 

A value of 0 means, the object has to be drawn. 

A value of 1 means for a cargo hook object, that it has to be hidden. For a winch object the object has also to be hidden, but the winch hook should be drawn. 

The following video demonstrates this behavior for a winch object. The mouse pointer first marks the attachment point. Then it goes to the linked dataref and shows the required animation by changing the dararefs value. The dataref is provided as read-only. It can be monitored by the object, but you can't write to it. 

This way the plugin can detach an object while keeping the sling visible. The corresponding weight changes are automatically calculated within the plugin.


Limits

General Limits

Maximum Gross Mass 2910 kg
VNE (at 0 ft altitude, OAT +30 °C)
At higher density altitude and temperature VNE will be lower
155 KIAS
Maximum operating altitude 20 000 ft
Maximum operating altitude for hover
in ground effect / takeoff and landing
12 000 ft
Minimum OAT -30 °C
Maximum OAT ISA + 39 °C
Ground Sloping max. 6°
Hover turns max. 60°/s

Rotor RPM

Condition Power ON Power OFF
Minmum Transient (max. 20s) 85 %  
Minimum Continuous 97 % 85 %
Maximum Continuous 104 % 106 %
Maximum Transient (max. 20s)   112 %

RPM Warning Light and Audio Warnings

NR RPM RPM Light Audio Tone Reset
NR ≤ 97 % ON Intermitted Low Yes
NR ≥ 106 % Flashing Gong Yes
NR ≥ 112 % Flashing Continuous High No

Engine and Transmission

Condition Transmission
(Helicopter)
Limits
max. TRQ
%
Engine 

max. TOT
°C
Engine

max. N1
%
Engine

max. N2
%
Starting Transient   875 (2 s)    
Starting   650 (45 s)    
Transient 
OEI 30 s, OEI 2 min
      107 (5 s)
Transient
AEO, OEI MCP
      112 (20 s)
Partial Power 2 ×10      
All Engines Operating:        
Takeoff Power
(5 min, V ≤ VY)
2 × 78 869 98.7 104
Max. Continuous Power 2 × 69 835 97.4 104
One Engine Inoperative:        
30 sec. Power 128 990 104.3 104
2 min. Power 89.5 900 100.6 104
Max. Continuous Power 89.5 900 100.4 104

Fuel Tanks

Tank Total fuel
liters
Total fuel
kg
Unuseable fuel
liters
Unuseable fuel
kg
Main 594 475.0 4.25 3.4
Supply 112 90.0 2 × 2.6 2 × 2.1
Totals 706 565.0 9.45 7.6

Emergency Procedures

Warning Light Indications

AP A.TRIM

AFCS is disconnected manually or due to failure. This warning is indicated for 10 sec-onds and disappears automatically even if AFCS remains disconnected.

Procedure: Fly the helicopter manually.

BAT DISCH

Battery is the only electrical power source. Normal during engine start.

Procedure: Reduce electrical consumption as much as possible. Land as soon as practicable.

BAT TEMP

Battery overtemperature

Procedure: BAT MSTR off. In flight: Land as soon as possible. 

FIRE (ENGINE 1 or ENGINE 2)

Overtemperature in engine compartment

Procedure: If in flight, establish OEI condition. Press respective EMER OFF switch and shutdown the affected engine. Land immediately. 

Note: Pressing the FIRE switch, the emergency shut off valve will be closed. When the emergency shut off valve is closed the caution F VALVE CL appears on the CAD.

LOW FUEL 1 and/or LOW FUEL 2

Respective supply tank fuel quantity below 24 kg

Procedure: Check both XFER pumps on. If both FUEL LOW warning lights remain on: Land within 10 minutes. 

ROTOR RPM

NRO 97% or less – steady light

NRO 106% or above – flashing light

Procedure: Adjust collective lever as necessary to maintain NRO within normal range. 

XMSN OIL P

XMSN oil pressure is below minimum

Procedure: Land as soon as possible. 

Caution Light Indications

MASTER CAUTION

Caution indication appeared on CAD

Procedure: Check indication on CAD and perform corresponding emergency procedure. Push CDS/AUDIO RES switch (on cyclic stick) or SELECT button (on CAD) to reset. 

CPDS caution Indications

ACTUATION (MISC)

Failure of a series actuator (AFCS)

AUTOPILOT (MISC)

AFCS is disconnected manually or due to failure. 

Procedure: Fly the helicopter manually. 

BAT DISCON (MISC)

Battery is off-line (normal when BAT MSTR switch is in OFF position).

Procedure: Check BAT MSTR switch. If indication remains on, land as soon as practicable. 

BUSTIE OPN (SYSTEM I or II)

Electrical systems are separated. High load bus disconnected. 

Procedure: Respective BUSTIE sw RESET. If caution indication comes on again: Land as soon as practicable. 

NOTE: BUS TIE switches are available only in Pro-Version.

DECOUPLE (MISC)

An upper AFCS mode is decoupled. This caution is indicated for 10 seconds.

DEGRADE (SYSTEM I or II)

Indicates a change or loss of a number of governing functions

ENG FAIL (SYSTEM I or II / CAD and FLI)

Respective N1-RPM below threshold value.

Procedure: Establish OEI flight conditions. Perform emergency shutdown of affected engine. Land as soon as practicable.

ENG IDLE (SYSTEM I or II / CAD and FLI)

The respective engine switch is in IDLE position.

ENG MANUAL (SYSTEM I or II)

Engine MANUAL mode is selected by switching ENG MODE SEL from NORM to MAN. There is no automatic governing function. Throttle has to be controlled manually by twist grip.

Returning to NORM mode: ENG MODE SEL switch to NORM. ENG MANAUL caution disappears. Then turn twist grip carefully to neutral Position. Check TWIST GRIP caution off.

NOTE: MANUAL mode is only available in Pro-Version.

ENG OIL P (SYSTEM I or II)

Affected engine oil pressure below minimum.

Procedure: Establish OEI flight conditions. Perform emergency shutdown of affected engine. Land as soon as practicable.

FADEC FAIL (SYSTEM I or II / CAD and FLI)

Fuel metering valve is blocked. Automatic acceleration, deceleration during power changes and NORM start are impossible.

Procedure: Adjust collective lever as necessary to maintain NRO within normal range. Adjust torque of affected engine manually by respective TWIST GRIP. 

NOTE: MANUAL mode is only available in Pro-Version. 

FLI FAIL (SYSTEM I or II / CAD and FLI)

Loss of two out of three signals (N1, TRQ, TOT) of the same engine. The numerical values of the failed parameters disappeared. The parameter designation is yellow. The Needle of the respective engine disappeared. If FLI FAIL and FADEC FAIL appear simultaneously, refer to FADEC FAIL procedure. 

F PUMP AFT (MISC)

Failure of aft fuel transfer pump, or dry run.

Procedure: Check fuel quantity in main tank. If quantity is sufficient to keep both fuel pumps wet, check FUEL PUMP XFER-A switch on. Switch OFF if indication remains on. If main tank fuel quantity is low, switch FUEL PUMP XFER-A OFF.

F PUMP FWD (MISC)

Failure of forward fuel transfer pump, or dry run.

Procedure: Check fuel quantity in main tank. If quantity is sufficient to keep both fuel pumps wet, check FUEL PUMP XFER-F switch on. Switch OFF if indication remains on. If main tank fuel quantity is low, switch FUEL PUMP XFER-F OFF.

FUEL PRESS (SYSTEM I or II)

Engine fuel pump inlet pressure low.

Procedure: Switch FUEL PRIME PUMP (affected engine) ON. If caution indication remains, switch pump OFF and land as soon as practicable.

FUEL VALVE (SYSTEM I or II)

Fuel valve is in a position other than commanded.

Procedure: Land as soon as practicable.

F VALVE CL (SYSTEM I or II)

Fuel valve is in closed position.

NOTE The F VALVE CL caution indication will come on after pressing the respective EMER OFF switch marked “FIRE”.

GEN DISCON (SYSTEM I or II)

Respective generator has failed or is disconnected from the power distribution system. Normal while Starter is running.

Procedure: Affected GEN switch RESET, then NORM (via OFF). If GEN DISCON caution indication remains on: Affected GEN switch OFF. DC VOLTS, GEN AMPS and BAT AMPS check. If battery is discharged: Reduce electrical consumers as much as possible. Land as soon as practicable.

NOTE One generator alone will provide sufficient power for normal services.

GEN DISCON (SYSTEM I and II)

Both generators have failed or are disconnected from the power distribution system. Only ESS BUS I + II are available.

Procedure: Each GEN switch RESET, then NORM (via OFF). If both GEN DISCON caution indications remain on: Both GEN switch OFF. Reduce electrical consumers as much as possible. NOTE: The battery will supply the ESS BUS I and II. SHED BUS sw EMER ON if necessary. DC VOLTS and BAT AMPS check. Land as soon as practicable.  

NOTE: Flight endurance depends on battery loading.  


NOTE: SHED BUS switch is available only in Pro-Version. 

GYRO (MISC)

Failure of a sensor such as AHRS or Rate Gyro.

HYD PRESS (SYSTEM I or II)

Pressure loss in the respective system, the other system retains power.

Procedure: Land as soon as practicable.

NO TG INST (MISC)

No Twist Grips installed. Caution comes up for 10 seconds if switched to MANUAL throttle mode without having installed or configured throttle rheostats.

P DAMPER (MISC)

Failure of the Pitch Damper.

PITOT HTR (SYSTEM I or II)

Pitot/Static heater is switched off or failed.

P/R SAS (MISC)

Failure of P/R SAS or inoperative.

PRIME PUMP (SYSTEM I and /or II)

Prime pump(s) in operation.

NOTE Prime pumps must be OFF during normal flight operations.

REDUND (SYSTEM I or II)

Indicates loss of redundancy or failure with no effect on fuel control system.

ROTOR BRK (MISC)

Rotor brake engaged.

Procedure: Check rotor brake lever in Off position. If indication remains on, land as soon as possible.

SHED EMER (MISC)

SHED BUS switch is switched to EMER ON.

Procedure: Reduce electrical consumers as much as possible. Land as soon as practicable.  

NOTE: SHED BUS switch is available only in Pro-Version. 

STARTER (SYSTEM I or II)

If STARTER caution indication remains on after reaching IDLE speed a relay blockade is evident. The indication is normal during engine starting. 

Procedure: Perform emergency shutdown of affected engine. Land as soon as practicable.

TRIM (MISC)

Failure of AFCS’s autotrim.

TWIST GRIP (SYSTEM I or II)

Twist grip is not in its neutral position. 

Returning to NORM mode: ENG MODE SEL switch to MANUAL, then NORM. ENG MANAUL caution disappears. Then turn twist grip carefully to neutral Position. Check TWIST GRIP caution off.

NOTE: MANUAL mode is only available in Pro-Version.

XMSN OIL P (SYSTEM I or II)

XMSN oil pressure in respective pump system is below minimum.

Procedure: Land as soon as practicable.

XMSN OIL T (MISC)

Transmission oil temperature above maximum.

Procedure: Reduce power as much as possible. Land as soon as possible. 

YAW SAS (MISC)

Failure of Yaw SAS or inoperative.

Single Engine Emergency Shutdown

  Make certain that the collective lever is adjusted to maintain the normal engine within OEI limits.
  Procedure  
  1. ENG main switch (affected engine) IDLE, check right engine then OFF

Inflight Restart

  Procedure  
  1. Collective lever Adjust to OEI MCP or below
  2. Collective lever friction Adjust to maintain position of lever wehen released
  3. Electrical consumption Reduce
  4. ENG MAIN sw Check OFF
  5. FADEC sw Check ON
  6. Engine PRIME PUMP sw On
  7. ENG MAIN sw FLIGHT; STARTER caution comes on
  When N1 > 50%  
  8. Engine PRIME PUMP sw OFF
  9. Electrical consumption As required
  10. Starting triangles Check disappeared
  If restart is not successful:  
  11. Single Engine emergency shutdown Perform
  12. LAND AS SOON AS PRACTICABLE  

Autorotation

  Procedure  
  1. Collective lever Reduce to maintain NR within limits
  2. Airspeed 75 KIAS recommended
NOTE Maximum range airspeed 90 KIAS
NOTE Minimum rate-of-decent airspeed 60 KIAS
  3. Double engine emergency shutdown Perform
  AT APPROXIMATELY 100 FT AGL:  
  4. Flare attitude Establish
  TOUCHDOWN:  
  5. Landing attitude Establish
  6. Heading Maintain
  7. Collective lever Increase to stop descent and cushion landing
  AFTER TOUCHDOWN:  
  8. Collective lever Raise slowly to prevent abrupt stop
  9 BAT MSTR sw OFF

Normal Procedures

Refer also to our video tutorial for engine start-up

Pre-Start Check

  Overhead Panel:  
  All switches OFF or NORM
  Instrument Panel:   
  All switches OFF or NORM
  BAT MSTR sw ON; CPDS internal test starts
NOTE Do not switch off CPDS during or after flight
  CAD Check no INP FAIL message
NOTE If INP FAIL appears in conjunction with the appropriate caution(s), this caution(s) will not be provided during flight. Abort pre-start check.
  Overhead Panel:   
  FIRE EW 1 test sw EXT/WARN
  CAD FIRE EXT and FIRE E TST must come on (system I)
  Warning Panel FIRE I must come on
  FIRE EW 1 test sw OFF
  FIRE EW 2 test sw EXT/WARN
  CAD FIRE EXT and FIRE E TST must come on (system II)
  Warning Panel FIRE II must come on
  FIRE EW 2 test sw OFF
  CDS/WARN UNIT TEST sw WARN UNIT (all warning lights and gong must come on)
  CDS/WARN UNIT TEST sw CPDS: Check display self test
  Fuel XFER pumps (AFT and FWD) ON; Check caution (F PUMP AFT/FWD) off
  Fuel XFER pumps (AFT and FWD) OFF
  Both fuel PRIME pumps ON and check cautions coming on
  A-COLL light sw ON
  Instrument Panel:  
  CAD & VEMD brightness Adjust as required
  VEMD DC voltage: minimum 24 V
  CAD fuel quantity indication Check quantity
  FADEC sw I then II ON
    Check following cautions: 
-TRAINING
-ENG MANUAL
-DEGRADE
-REDUND
  Cyclic Stick:  
  TRIM REL sw Press

Starting Engines

  Before starting engines  
  Rotor area Clear
  Abort start procedure  
 

IMMEDIATELY ABORT START FOR ANY OF THE FOLLOWING:

IF IGNITION DOES NOT TAKE PLACE AFTER REACHING OF N1 = 20% BUT LAT-EST AFTER 15 SECONDS. WAIT FOR 30 SECONDS BEFORE TRYING STARTING AGAIN.

TOT RISES ABNORMALLY RAPIDLY ABOVE 650°C AND IS QUICKLY APPROACH-ING 760°C.

IF ENGINE HANGS. (Stagnation in N1 below 54%)

NO POSITIVE ENGINE OR TRANSMISSION OIL PRESSURE INDICATIONS UPON REACHING GROUND IDLE CONDITION.

IF N1 OR N2 INCREASE BEYOND ENGINE LIMITS.

  ENG MAIN sw(s) OFF
  Starting first engine  
NOTE Either engine may be started first  
  First Limit Indicator Check needle shows TOT
  ENG MAIN sw first engine IDLE, simultaneously start clock
Monitor:
- N1 increase
- TOT rise (≈ 570 °C); note that FLI needle moves not until ≈ 350 °C.
- Engine oil pressure
- N2 and NRO increase
  Ground IDLE Check N2 ≈ 74%
  HYDRAULIC Check:  
  TRIM REL sw (on cyclic stick) Press
  Cyclic stick Unlock
  HYD test sw SYS 1
Check caution indication HYD PRESS (System 2)
    SYS 2
Check caution indication HYD PRESS (System 1)
    NORM
  Starting second engine  
  First Limit Indicator Check needle shows TOT
  ENG MAIN sw second engine IDLE, simultaneously start clock
Monitor:
- N1 increase
- TOT rise (≈ 570 °C); note that FLI needle moves not until ≈ 350 °C.
- Engine oil pressure
- N2 and NRO increase
  When IDLE speed of N2 ≈ 74% is reached:
  Both Fuel XFER pumps ON
  Both Fuel PRIME pumps OFF
  INVERTER sw ON
  AVIONIC MASTER switches ON
  Instruments Set and check
  Both ENG MAIN switches FLIGHT
  After rotor RPM has stbilized:
  Both ENG MAIN switch guards Close
  Engine quick start procedure
  INVERTER sw ON
  TRIM REL sw Press
  Cyclic stick Unlock and hold in neutral pos.
NOTE Only one engine will begin starting cycle. After reaching N1 ≈ 50%, the second engine will begin its starting cycle automatically.
  First Limit Indicator Check needle shows TOT
  Both ENG MAIN sw’s FLIGHT, simultaneously start clock
Monitor:
- N1 increase
- TOT rise (≈ 570 °C); note that FLI needle moves not until ≈ 350 °C.
- Engine oil pressure
- N2 and NRO increase
  When N2 > 74% at both engines:
  Both Fuel XFER pumps ON
  Both Fuel PRIME pumps OFF
  AVIONIC MASTER switches ON
  When both engines in Flight idle:
  Instruments Set and check
  HYDRAULIC Check  
  HYD test sw SYS 1
Check caution indication HYD PRESS (System 2)
    SYS 2
Check caution indication HYD PRESS (System 1)
    NORM

System Checks

  Miscellaneous Checks  
  Optional equipment checks As required
  SAS Check  
  SAS / AP CUT push-button Press
Check CAUTION indication:
-YAW SAS
-P/R SAS
  SAS Y RST switch Reset YAW
  SAS PR RST switch Reset P/R
  AFCS Test (when AFCS intended to be operated in A.TRIM mode)
  TEST button Press to initiate system test
  Warning panel AP/A.TRIM appears
  CAD During test the following cautions appear:
-AUTOPILOT
-TRIM
-ACTUATION
-P/R SAS
-GYRO
-DECOUPLE
-YAW SAS
-P DAMPER
  PFD / YR / P / flashing
  Cyclic stick Check motion during trim test
  If system test was successful (lamp of the test button out):
  CAD All autopilot relevant cautions disappear
  AP button Press to engage the autopilot (OFF lamp of the AP button goes off)

Pre-Takeoff Check

  NRO / N2 Check ≈ 98 %
  FLI needles Check matched at same parameter
  All WARNING, CAD & VEMD indications Check
  All doors Closed
  Collective pitch Unlock

Takeoff 

NOTE If AFCS is engaged, it is required to override the autopilot temporarily during takeoff procedure by using the Force Trim Release button. Alternatively A.TRIM mode can be deactivated while lifting off. Autopilot then operates in SAS mode.
  Cyclic stick Perform small input; check start-ing triangles disappeared
  Hover flight Perform
  NRO / N2 Check ≈ 100 %
  FLI needles Check matched at same parameter
  All WARNING, CAD & VEMD indications Check
  Recommended takeoff procedure:
  Acceleration and climb Start nose down pitch rotation and simultaneously increase power smoothly so that the helicopter gains speed and height.
  When reaching 50 KIAS Maintain airspeed until reaching 50ft AGL, then accelerate to VY (65 kt) and climb through 100ft AGL

Pre-Landing Check

NOTE If AFCS is engaged, it is required to override the autopilot temporarily during takeoff procedure by using the Force Trim Release button. Alternatively A.TRIM mode can be deactivated while lifting off. Autopilot then operates in SAS mode.
  All instruments Check
  All WARNING, CAD & VEMD indications Check

Landing

  Recommended landing procedure
  After reaching 50 ft AGL Descent with ≤ 500 ft/min at 40 KIAS
  Before touchdown Establish flare attitude to reduce ground speed and raise collec-tive lever to cushion landing
  Touchdown Establish with zero groundspeed
  Cyclic stick Neutral
  Collective pitch Lock

Engine Shutdown

  ENG I/II main switches IDLE
  Inverter sw OFF
  Avionic Master switches OFF
  STBY/HOR sw OFF
  Fuel XFER F + A pumps OFF
  All electrical consumers OFF; except anti-collision light and FADEC sw
  Cyclic stick Lock
  ENG I/II main switches OFF
  Engine parameters Monitor
  When rotor has stopped:  
  Anti-collision light OFF
  VEMD Check FLIGHT REPORT page for counter cycles and exceeded mast moment indications
  FADEC switches (2) OFF
  BAT MSTR switch OFF

Appendix: Preferences file format

User preferences are saved in a text file named ec135v5.ini (ec135v4.ini for V4) which is stored in the folder Output/preferences of your X-Plane installation. 

These instructions are intended for advanced users!

The file format is based on the common INI file format with the following characteristics: 

  • Entries are case sensitive
  • Boolean values must be written as integers, where 0 means false and 1 means true
  • Comments are not fully supported


Preferences file can be edited with every plain text editor. Please do not use word processing programs such as Word. 

The following describes the individual keys that can be used in the ec135v5.ini file. Unknown keys written in the correct syntax are ignored. If the keys are not available, the standard value is usually automatically accepted. Some data is saved in the file every time the aircraft is unloaded.

Section Key Comment
SETTINGS JoystickSensitivityPitch Sensitivity of the joystick on the pitch axis.
This value overwrites the setting of X-Plane. The original value is restored when the EC 135 is unloaded. If the sensitivity is changed in the X-Plane menu while the EC 135 is loaded, this new value is saved here for the next time the machine is called up.
Default value: 0.00
SETTINGS  JoystickSensitivityRoll  Sensitivity of the joystick on the roll axis.
This value overwrites the setting of X-Plane. The original value is restored when the EC 135 is unloaded. If the sensitivity is changed in the X-Plane menu while the EC 135 is loaded, this new value is saved here for the next time the machine is called up.
Default value: 0.00
SETTINGS JoystickSensitivityHeading Sensitivity of the joystick or pedals on the yaw axis.
This value overwrites the setting of X-Plane. The original value is restored when the EC 135 is unloaded. If the sensitivity is changed in the X-Plane menu while the EC 135 is loaded, this new value is saved here for the next time the machine is called up.
Default value: 0.00
SETTINGS JoystickAugmentPitch Artificial stability for control inputs on pitch axis.
This value overwrites the setting of X-Plane. The original value is restored when the EC 135 is unloaded. If the stability setting is changed in the X-Plane menu while the EC 135 is loaded, this new value is saved here for the next time the machine is called up.
Default value: 0.00
SETTINGS JoystickAugmentRoll Artificial stability for control inputs on roll axis.
This value overwrites the setting of X-Plane. The original value is restored when the EC 135 is unloaded. If the stability setting is changed in the X-Plane menu while the EC 135 is loaded, this new value is saved here for the next time the machine is called up.
Default value: 0.00
SETTINGS JoystickAugmentHeading Artificial stability for control inputs on yaw axis.
This value overwrites the setting of X-Plane. The original value is restored when the EC 135 is unloaded. If the stability setting is changed in the X-Plane menu while the EC 135 is loaded, this new value is saved here for the next time the machine is called up.
Default value: 0.00
SETTINGS ReportLogLimit Limits the number of stored flights for the output of flight data at the VEMD. If no limitation is made, this can have an impact on performance, especially when reading and writing the report file. This can cause the simulator to stutter. 0 means no limit. 
SETTINGS PositionLightsAtRunning 0 Position lights are off after load with running engines (default).
1 Position lights ar on after load with running engines.
SETTINGS StrobeLightsAtRunning 0 Strobe lights are off after load with running engines (default).
1 Strobe lights ar on after load with running engines.
SETTINGS LastStandardReset NEVER TOUCH THIS!
AFCS ResetTrimAtDisengage 0 Trim is retained when the autopilot is switched off.
1 Sets the trim back to neutral values when the autopilot is switched off.
SYSTEMS DecisionHeightPilot Decision height for the display at the pilot's side in ft.
SYSTEMS DecisionHeightCopilot Decision height for the display at the co-pilot's side in ft.
SYSTEMS NdMode Mode the Navigation Display has when switched on.
0 MAP
1 HSI (default)
SYSTEMS HiNrEngaged 0 HiNr switch not engaged by default.
1 HiNr switch locked by default.
ROTORSYSTEM TipWeightMultiplyer Factor for a change in the kinetic energy of the rotor during autorotation. Do not change this!
ROTORSYSTEM TrimResetRate Changes the speed at which the trim is set back to neutral values, e.g. when the autopilot is switched off.
FUEL FuelWeightAtReload Weight of fuel set when the aircraft is loaded in kg.
PV_HORIZ Engaged Automatic line of sight control (horizontal): Engagement. Not available in PRO version. 
0 disengaged
1 engaged (default) 
PV_HORIZ RateMax Automatic line of sight control (horizontal): Turnrate. Default value: 35.00
PV_HORIZ Deflection Automatic line of sight control (horizontal): Deflection. Default value: 12.00
PV_HORIZ Curve Automatic line of sight control (horizontal): Responsiveness. Default value: 2.00
PV_VERT Engaged Automatic line of sight control (vertical): Engagement. Not available in PRO version. 
0 disengaged
1 engaged (default) 
PV_VERT RateMax Automatic line of sight control (vertical): Turnrate. Default value: 20.00
PV_VERT Deflection Automatic line of sight control (vertical): Deflection. Default value: 4.00
PV_VERT Curve Automatic line of sight control (vertical): Responsiveness. Default value: 2.00
PV_ROLL Engaged Automatic line of sight control (roll): Engagement. Not available in PRO version. 
0 disengaged
1 engaged (default) 
PV_ROLL RateMax Automatic line of sight control (roll): Turnrate. Default value: 30.00
PV_ROLL Deflection Automatic line of sight control (roll): Deflection. Default value: 5.00
PV_ROLL Curve Automatic line of sight control (roll): Responsiveness. Default value: 1.00
CREW Pilot Is the Pilot boarded after load? Default value: 1
CREW Copilot Is the Co-pilot boarded after load? Default value: 1
CREW Doctor Is Passenger 1 boarded after load? Default value: 1
CREW Passenger Is Passenger 2 boarded after load? Default value: 0
CREW Patient Is Passenger 3 boarded after load? Default value: 0
LANDINGLIGHT ExtendedLightAtOn Angle of the extendable landing light after switching on. Can be between 0.00 (full retracted) and 1.00 (full extended).
Default value: 0.85, in PRO Version 0.00
LANDINGLIGHT LandingLight1AtRunning 0 Fixed landing light is off after load with running engines (default).
1 Fixed landing light is on after load with running engines.
LANDINGLIGHT LandingLight2AtRunning 0 Extendable landing light is off after load with running engines (default).
1 Extendable landing light is on after load with running engines.
LANDINGLIGHT LandingLightSearchRunning 0 Search light is off after load with running engines (default).
1 Search landing light is on after load with running engines. 
CARGOHOOK CableLenght Standard cable length for sling operations with cargo hook. Default value: 10.00

Example for a preferences file

[SETTINGS]
JoystickSensitivityPitch=0.000000
JoystickSensitivityRoll=0.000000
JoystickSensitivityHeading=0.000000
JoystickAugmentPitch=0.000000
JoystickAugmentRoll=0.000000
JoystickAugmentHeading=0.000000
ReportLogLimit=20

[SYSTEMS]
HiNrEngaged=1
DecisionHeightPilot=130.000000
DecisionHeightCopilot=130.000000

[ROTORSYSTEM]
TrimResetRate=0.05

[FUEL]
FuelWeightAtReload=495

[AFCS]
ResetTrimAtDisengage=1 

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